The process of industrial logging often involves cutting down large areas of the forest through a process called clearcutting. Logging is done for economic purposes either to sell the timber, clear land for farms, or both, but it causes substantial damage to forest ecosystems in the following ways:
- Road-building harms plant and soil health and fragments habitats
- Increases disease and invasive species in the forest
- Decreases biodiversity of the forest
- Increases risk of wildfires
How Roadbuilding Harms Forests
Separate from the logging itself, roadbuilding is an associated activity that causes major environmental damage. Loggers must build roads to travel in and out of the forested area that they are harvesting. In the process, roadbuilding causes:
- Forest fragmentation and barriers to migration
- Increased erosion–less resistance to flooding
- Polluted water supply from road runoff
Roadbuilding is just the first step, however, to a variety of issues caused by logging itself.
Disease and Invasive Species Introduced
Logging may also introduce disease and invasive species to a forest. Tree stumps and debris naturally attract disease that will eventually infect the next generation of forest that grows there. Additionally, because crews are traveling in and out of the area, they may bring with them invasive species that will outcompete native species in that area.
Biodiversity is a major issue the world is facing today. Species are going extinct at an alarming rate, due in part to changing climate, but especially due to deforestation. When trees are cut down, any organism that relied on that tree will either die or relocate. Many organisms in forest ecosystems are specialists, meaning they rely on a specific organism to survive. If that organism is a tree, that puts the specialist at great risk of extinction.
Increased Wildfire Risk
Industrial logging increases the severity and spread of wildfires. This is because when forests are cut (especially through clearcutting) debris is left behind that is dry and flammable. A fire can then burn very easily through that area and onto parts of the living forest that it otherwise may not because forests have natural fire resistance. A fire over bare land will burn larger and burn farther compared to a fire in a forest.
- Industrial logging, especially clearcutting, may harm forest ecosystems to a point of no return through decreasing biodiversity, increasing wildfire risk, introducing disease and invasive species, and fragmenting the ecosystems.